dating profile examples for men:8 Amazing Adult dating Shape Suggestions For Men

This is because statins not only keep cholesterol lower, but also decrease the expression and activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species 37,38.

In patients with hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones and pure calcium oxalate stones or a mixture of both can form, due to the acidification of the urine itself39.

In cases of primary gout, 39% of patients have urinary stones, 30% of them asymptomatic and are only diagnosed by ultrasound20.

There are pathophysiological changes that make the pregnant woman more susceptible to urolithiasis, among them is urinary stasis produced by increased progesterone and mechanical compression, in addition to increased glomerular filtration rate, intake of calcium supplements and increased circulating levels of vitamin D leading to elevated urinary pH, hypercalciuria, and hyperuricosuria; increased glomerular filtration rate leads to increased tubular flow followed by decreased tubular reabsorption and increased excretion of calcium and / or uric acid. The placental production of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol has also been found to promote intestinal calcium reabsorption and mobilization of bone calcium40.

However, it is generally accepted that pregnancy is not a state of increased stone formation; Pregnant women have been found to have hypercitraturia; citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth and aggregation, therefore it can be considered a probable clinically significant protective factor during pregnancy, compensating for the effects of hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria40.

The incidence of urolithiasis in pregnancy is observed in 1 / 200-1,500 pregnancies, much more frequent in Caucasians than in African-Americans, and about 75% of pregnant patients with nephrolithiasis have calcium phosphate stones41,42.

Regarding complications, there is a higher risk of preterm birth that can occur in up to 67% of cases43, and a higher percentage of premature rupture of membranes in pregnant women with nephrolithiasis than in pregnant women without nephrolithiasis (7 vs. 2.9%; p <0.05) 42, in addition to a greater need to perform a cesarean section43.

Several studies associate the frequency of kidney stone formation with the lifestyles of each patient, leading to a progressive increase in their incidence and prevalence, for this reason we will place an emphasis on their most important variables:

Promotion and prevention measures are essential to interfere with the progress of the disease, in addition to being the first contact and the first opportunity that one has with the patient, so it is important to take into account some nutritional interventions associated with the disease such as following:

Oral fluid intake: high fluid intake produces a high daily urinary volume that decreases the formation of crystals in the urine and the decrease in supersaturation of solutes as demonstrated in the study by Pak et al.,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *