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Many sources report that the exit to the castle is from this direction. Indeed, the natural structure of the rock only provides an easier access to the castle from this direction. The presence of architectural arrangements for defense towers and systems in this area also supports this. Many building groups belonging to the Urartian period are also located on this mass. At its highest part, the New Palace sits on wide terraces created by flattening the bedrock. Further west, Horhor Tombs, which take their name from the water sources in the south of the rock, further north, the Minua Barn and Madır Bastion at the plain level are among the important building groups here. The Horhor region and the western end of the rock are also rich in water resources. It still maintains this quality today.

The walls surrounding the Sitadeli bear the traces of the time period from the Urartu period to the 19th century. The city wall system, which still stands today, rises above the Urartu walls at many points. It is possible to distinguish the traces of different periods from the wall texture of the walls. On the foundation beds carved into the bedrock, coarse travertine, sometimes limestone and sandstone blocks are the remains of the Urartian period city wall system. In most areas, mortared and late period walls, raised with smaller block stones, rise above these walls. During the restoration works carried out in recent years, even the spaces of the Urartian stone walls, which were built without mortar, were filled with mortar, and the original texture was destroyed. The foundation deposits also enable us to determine the location and route of the Urartu period walls. It is useful to repeat a detail here. Especially in the Urartu Period, the construction of some buildings on the terraces parallel to the topography caused them to be made part of the defense system with the buildings rising on the terrace walls. Especially in areas such as New Palace and Mother Girl, the foundation deposits starting on the rocks just above the plain level are the product of this characteristic approach of Urartu architecture. Thus, the rocky rising in the form of gradual natural terraces in the north was made suitable for construction with artificial terraces placed on the basement beds, and at the same time, the high walls functioned as ramparts. The south side of the castle is quite steep as mentioned before. Except to the south of the New Palace Upper Sitadel area, which was probably reinforced for the foundation systems where the buildings will sit, on the south face of the rock, there is no arrangement for any fortification system.

“The inscription (tablet) is the great king of the son of Lutibri, Sarduri (who is) the great king, the powerful king, the king of all things, the king of the Nairi Land, the king like no other, the astonishing shepherd, who is not afraid of war, submissive to the rebels. (I) Sarduri son of Lutibri, king of kings, I received tribute from all kings. The son of Lutibri, Sarduri says: I brought the limestones of this building from the city of Alniunu. I built this wall. “

There are a total of 8 rock tombs opened on the south face of the Tuspa-Van Rock. The opening of the facades of the grave chambers to the south is related to the structural character of the rock. Because the Van Rocks are quite steep in this area, it is easier to produce monumental, smooth facades, especially with less labor.

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